Pacemaker Speed Graphic
The Pacemaker Speed Graphic was manufactured 1947-1970. Post-war improvements
to the Anniversary
Graphic were coated lens, lenses in shutters, body release, and folding
The Pacemaker Speed Graphic is identical to the Pacemaker
Crown Graphic, but has a focal plane shutter, which provides access
to barrel-mounted (shutterless) lenses, and offers the ability to track
a moving object and give a noticeable ``lean'' effect. It reduces access
to wide-angle lenses because of the clearance necessary for the shutter.
Pacemaker series cameras have rangefinders as standard features. In 1947-1955
models (left), the rangefinder is mounted on the side, and is usually a
Kalart, but occasionally a Hugo
Meyer. For the Kalart models, an internal
adjustment synchronises with almost any lens. For 4x5" models only
a model change in 1955 (top of page) replaced the Kalart rangefinder with
an integral Graflex rangefinder,
mounted on the top on 4x5" Graphics. The later Top Rangefinder version
of the Pacemaker takes interchangable
Most Pacemakers have the Graflok
back, where the focusing panel is both spring loaded and removable.
The body release is switchable, and works both front and rear shutters.
The front standard has tilt back, shift and rise. The bed drops.
The Speed Graphic has sufficient extension to focus the 15" (380mm)
Tele-Optar to about 6-8 feet, sufficient for portraiture. The extension
limit is not in bellows draw, but rather the limit imposed by the thickness
of the chassis. The Speed Graphic is relatively thick: it will not focus
a 47mm lens to infinity, though it can focus a 65mm to infinity. The Crown
Graphic can accomodate shorter lenses because it lacks the rear-curtain
shutter. There were recessed lensboard the earlier Anniversary
models, but apparently none for the Pacemaker.
The Pacemaker Speed Graphic has the following controls:
The lens standard can tilt up to 20 degrees, and can shift up about 19
mm. The carriage also can shift from side to side about 8 mm in either
direction, but cannot (but see below).
It is difficult to figure out how to open a Speed Graphic when it is
closed. There is a button mounted under the leather on the right side near
the top. It is visible as a bump. Depress this bump and pull the focus
bed (i.e., the front, when the camera is closed) down until the bed braces
lock into position.
When stowing the camera away, always makes sure the front finder frame
is all the way down, rack the focus bed all the way back in, unlock the
front standard lock, push the front standard all the way in, ana lock the
front standard lock.
A flip-up lensless eyepiece mounted at the top rear center of the camera
back. The user places his or her eye close to the sight, and looks through
it and the front finder frame. In 1955 and later 4x5" models, parallax
correction is accomplished by moving the peep site up and down.
Front Finder Frame
The front finder frame is mounted to lens front standard. It is U-shaped,
with 90-degree corners. It has two parts, one telescoping inside the other,
and both telescoping into the front standard. When not in use, it slides
mostly into the front standard. When it use, one of the components is pulled
all the way up, and the other is adjusted up or down for parallax correction,
as marked in stamped numbers on the sides.
The frame must be pushed all the way in before the focus bed is racked
in. It cannot be used with certain wide-angle lenses, below about 90mm,
because the frame will run into the camera body.
In 2x3", 3x4", and pre-1955 4x5" models, parallax correction is accomplished
by moving the telescoping inner part of the front finder frame up and down.
Optical View Finder
The optical view finder is rectangular on the Pacemaker series, as
opposed to tubular on some previous models. It has interchangable masks
over its front element, for different lenses and formats. Some retailers
still sell these masks. The eyepiece portion rotates to move up and down
slightly for parallax correction.
Shown to the right is a later model Speed Graphic with the integral Graphic
Rangefinder. The Kalart Range Finder is mounted on the right side in the
early Pacemakers. Sometimes there is a flash holder bracket on the rangefinder.
Body Shutter Release
Below the Kalart range finder is a wide stepped lever which actives
one of two shutters: the lens shutter or the rear curtain shutter. Which
shutter it operates is controlled by a vertical slide switch just behind
the release. For the front (lens) shutter, it is connected by a cable to
a lever arm which activates the shutter release on the lens, if the lens
has a shutter.
Rear Curtain Shutter Speed Selector
The Rear Curtain Shutter Speed Selector is in two parts: a wing-nut
winder knob which winds up the cloth on a roll, and positions one of several
windows, and a tension lever, which selects either high-tension (fast)
or low-tension (slow).
The loosest wind of the cloth is a closed shutter (marked ``0'' in the
window), and next is a fully-open shutter (marked ``T'' in the window).
The remaining cloth positions each provide two shutter speeds, depending
on the position of the tension arm. Always store your Speed Graphic with
the tension arm in the slower-speed position, and with the curtain in the
When using the optical view finder or the peep sight (for example, with
roll film) take care not to accidently trigger the rear curtain shutter
into the "0" position, as you will get no exposure. If you are using the
ground glass for focusing, you won't have this problem.
Fold-Down Infinity Stops
Folding infinity stops were introduced in the Pacemaker series.
The stop is screwed onto the bed rail at the point where the lens is focused
at infinity according to the rangefinder (if calibrated for that lens,
or in post-1955 models when the cam is installed), or according to the
focus scale, if one is attached, or simply at the lens focal length distance
from the film plane (for most non-telephoto lenses). The infinity
stop can be folded down to all the lens standard to be moved back behind
or in front of the stop, to allow for a different infinity position for
a longer or shorter lens, or to allow extra bellows extension for close-up
The focus bed can be dropped to move it out of the field of view of wide
angle (<= 90mm) lenses. The front standard remains within the camera
body and is so the lens is unaffected by the movement, as shown here. With
longer lenses, the bed can be dropped in order to obtain fall, in which
case the front standard should be tilted parallel to the film plane. Or,
the front standard tilt can be left as is, and front rise used, in order
to obtain downward tilt with no rise or fall.
The lens carriage can tilt up, up to 20 degrees, and can shift up about
19 mm. The rail bed normally opens square with the camera body, but can
be over-extended to drop below perpendicular by an angle of 20 degrees.
The carriage also can shift from side to side about 8 mm in either direction,
but cannot swing.
More to come.
Lens Board Locks
More to come.
Rising Front Knurled Knobs
More to come.
Front Tilt Knurled Knobs
More to come.
Front Standard Positioning Lock
More to come.
Front Standard Shift Lever
More to come.
The rail bed normally opens square with the camera body, but you can
"drop" the bed below perpendicular by an angle of 20 degrees. Because the
lens standard can tilt up the same angle as the tilt down of the dropped
bed, the lens can be brought back to parallel with the film plane, and
the shift up is just enough to raise the lens back to the central axis
of the camera for a 100 mm lens or less, hence any wide angle lens (shorter
than 100 mm) can be put back to front and center when the bed is dropped
to get it out of the field of view.
The use of the tilt and shift doesn't stop just with accomodating wide-angle
lenses. Bed-drop, tilt up, and shift can be combined in clever ways to
use the Pacemaker like a view camera:
You can use the up and side to side shift to correct (or distort) perspective.
With the bed dropped and the lens carriage tilted to compensate, you can
get a downward shift, just by not shifting the carriage up as much as is
needed to compensate for the drop in the bed (19 mm). (You may find it
more convenient to just attach the camera to the tripod by its side-mount
screw, probably intended for portrait photography, and just turn the whole
camera upside down, so shift up becomes shift down.)
You can use the tilt up to angle your plane (or wedge) of focus. And you
can drop the bed to get a tilt down (just don't the tilt up as much as
is needed to compensate for the 20 degree downward tilt of the rail bed).
(Again, you may find it easier just to turn the camera upside down, so
tilt up becomes tilt down.)
To obtain "swing" (twisting side-to-side bringing the
lens out of parallel with the film horizontally), turn the camera sideways
and use tilt or bed-drop, as above.
(Note that 3x4" cameras are not as desirable
as 4x5 or 2x3, due to the lack of film.)
|Pacemaker 23 Speed Graphic
||Pacemaker 34 Speed Graphic
||Pacemaker 45 Speed Graphic